By Daniel C. Snell
A better half to the traditional close to East bargains scholars and normal readers a complete evaluation of close to japanese civilization from the Bronze Age to the conquests of Alexander the nice.
- Covers the civilizations of the Sumerians, Hittites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Israelites and Persians
- Places specific emphasis on social and cultural heritage
- Covers the legacy of the traditional close to East within the medieval and sleek worlds
- Provides an invaluable bibliographical consultant to this box of study
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Extra info for A Companion to the Ancient Near East
After that, more wars were intended to acquire control of the trade network, and were directed against Susa (Iranian network), against Magan (Gulf network), against Mari and Ebla, both of them destroyed by Naram-Sin (2254–2218), the most important king of Akkad. The celebrative inscriptions and monuments of the Akkadian kings were the expression of a new idea of ‘‘heroic’’ kingship and of enlarged territorial control. The deification of Naram-Sin clearly contrasted to the old Sumerian ideology of the city leader as administrative representative of the god.
This was especially the case of the ‘‘Mari age’’ (seventeenth century) for Upper Mesopotamia, and of the ‘‘Amarna age’’ (fourteenth century) for the Levant. But the Hittite and Middle-Assyrian archives also provide useful information. The diplomatic language in letters and treaties of the time was Babylonian, and cuneiform writing was also used in most of the area for internal court and administrative records. Interpreters, messengers, and ambassadors carried out diplomatic missions, which were based on the exchange of messages, of gifts, and of women.
The royal edicts of debt remission were no longer proclaimed, debt slavery increased, landed properties concentrated in the hands of creditors, and the basic support for the king was no longer the free population but palace circles and the warrior aristocracy. Socio-economic relations had already undergone an important change at the beginning of the second millennium, when workers under corve´e (forced labor), used widely during the Early Bronze, were replaced by hired workers. Of course, the corve´e system was based on the existence of substantial village communities, while hired manpower came from a large dispossessed peasantry.