By S. Mauw, G. J. Veltink
Smooth computing device networks now circle the realm, however the transmission of knowledge between them will depend on the various diverse protocols that outline the habit of the sender and receiver. it's transparent as a result, that the exact description of those protocols is necessary if harmonious conversation is to be maintained. during this publication the authors use the formal specification language PSF to supply an unambiguous description of numerous conversation protocols of various degrees of complexity, starting from the alternating bit protocol to the token ring protocol. novices, in addition to pros within the box of conversation protocols, will take advantage of either the equipment of specification defined, and the protocols mentioned during this publication.
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A regular expression consisting of a single nonmetacharacter matches itself. Thus, a single letter or digit is a basic regular expression that matches itself. To preserve the literal meaning of a metacharacter in a regular expression, precede it by a backslash. Thus, the regular expression '$ matches the character $. If a character is preceded by a single '· we'll say that character is quoted. In a regular expression, an unquoted caret " matches the beginning of a string, an unquoted dollar-sign $ matches the end of a string, and an unquoted period • matches any single character.
For example, this program prints all input fields, one per line: i = 1 while (i <::: NF) print $i i++ The loop stops when i reaches NF+ 1, and that is its value after the loop exits. 2 for (expression 1 ; expression 2 ; 49 expression 3 ) statement Newlines are optional after the right parenthesis. The for statement has the same effect as expression 1 while (expression 2 ) statement expression 3 } so for (i = 1; i <= NF; i++) print $i does the same loop over the fields as the while example above.
2 for (expression 1 ; expression 2 ; 49 expression 3 ) statement Newlines are optional after the right parenthesis. The for statement has the same effect as expression 1 while (expression 2 ) statement expression 3 } so for (i = 1; i <= NF; i++) print $i does the same loop over the fields as the while example above. In the for statement, all three expressions are optional. If expression 2 is missing, the condition is taken to be always true, so for ( ; ; ) is an infinite loop. An alternate version of the for statement that loops over array subscripts is described in the section on arrays.