By Jean-Pierre Lepoittevin, David A. Basketter, An Goossens, Ann-Therese Karlberg, R.J.G. Rycroft
Allergic touch Dermatitis offers all updated chemical and physio-chemical recommendations for the research and knowing of allergic touch dermatitis (ACD). The booklet covers all points of ACD - epidermis penetration and metabolism, id of sensitizers and hapten-protein interplay, together with new techniques of accelerating significance corresponding to molecular attractiveness and quantitative structure-activity relationships. moreover, complete references are supplied, making this the main entire on hand text-book for dermatologists.
Allergic touch Dermatitis reaches an equilibrium among basic ideas and medical purposes and hence provides a vital guide to dermatologists, allergologists, biochemists and toxicologists.
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Extra info for Allergic Contact Dermatitis: The Molecular Basis
Isomers show varying degrees of differences in their physical and/or chemical properties. Constitutional isomers are those in which the atoms are arranged differently on the hydrocarbon skeleton (Fig. 24). A second type of isomerism occurs when two molecules have the same sequential, but different spatial, arrangement of atoms; this is known as stereoisomerism, an example being enantiomers. 33 Chemical Basis H H H \/ H H C C CH/ ' C / 'CH CI 3 / H H H \ 2 C C CH/ ' C........ 'CH 3 / H H CI \/ \/ \/ \ 3 H Fig.
Sometimes special pretreatment of samples is necessary before a successful separation can be achieved. When the separation is performed, reference compounds of the components to be analyzed must always be used for comparison with the unknown sample. 1 Extraction Procedures An extraction step may be necessary before the analysis can be performed. If the product suspected to contain the offending agent is a more or less solid material, extraction can be done with water or an organic solvent. To enhance the Isolation and Identification of Contact Allergens 45 efficiency, the extraction is performed in an ultrasonic bath.
Mechanism SN2 MeO ~HEt 38 Jean-Pierre Lepoittevin· Valerie Berl • Ka .. pH = pKa at the equilibrium Fig. 32. Nucleopbile and pH • Fig. 33. 33). 3 Nucleophilic Substitution on an Unsaturated Center Nucleophilic substitution can also occur on an unsaturated center, i. , on a carbon with a double bond or a 1f bond. In this case, the mechanism is slightly different, as it consists of an addition reaction, followed by an elimination reaction, the net effect being a substitution (Fig. 34). In the initial stage, the nucleophile adds on to the electrophilic carbon, resulting in the displacement of the 1f bond towards the most electronegative atom and the formation of a saturated intermediate.