By Shih-Chii Liu, Jorg Kramer, Giacomo Indiveri, Tobias Delbruck, Rodney Douglas
Neuromorphic engineers paintings to enhance the functionality of synthetic structures in the course of the improvement of chips and platforms that procedure details jointly utilizing basically analog circuits. This e-book provides the principal thoughts required for the inventive and winning layout of analog VLSI circuits. The dialogue is weighted towards novel circuits that emulate traditional sign processing. not like so much circuits in advertisement or business functions, those circuits function mostly within the subthreshold or susceptible inversion zone. in addition, their performance isn't restricted to linear operations, but additionally encompasses many fascinating nonlinear operations just like these taking place in average platforms. issues comprise gadget physics, linear and nonlinear circuit varieties, translinear circuits, photodetectors, floating-gate units, noise research, and approach know-how.
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Extra info for Analog VLSI: Circuits and Principles
N: . . : : : . : . : : . :: . 2 Physical structure of (a) an nFET and (b) a pFET in a common p- substrate. The pFET rests in a n-well within the substrate. (also called polysilicon or poly), which has low resistivity. We can view the transistor as having four terminals; the gate (G), the source (S), the drain (D), and the bulk (B). Because the n+ source and drain regions can supply a lot of Chapter 3 50 electrons to the channel, this device is called an n-channel MOSFET (nFET)4 .
Inc. 18 Chapter 2 level is within the conduction or valence band or very near the edge of one of these bands, such that a large fraction of the states at the band edge are occupied, its properties become similar to those of a metal and we speak of a degenerate semiconductor. This happens for acceptor doping concentrations of around Nc and donor doping concentrations of around N v. Commonly-used doping elements for silicon are phosphorus (P) and arsenic (As) as donors and boron (B) as an acceptor.
10) The relationships between the carrier concentrations, their gradients, the dif fusion velocities, and the diffusion current densities are shown schematically in Fig. 7. As we shall see, diffusion determines the current flow in diodes and, within the operating range mainly considered in this book, in transistors. Diffusion also governs the ion flows in biological neurons. 22 Chapter 2 Drift currents are caused by electric fields. 12) where JLnand JLp are positive constants denoting the electron and hole mobility, respectively.