Essentials of Programming Languages - 2nd Edition by Daniel P. Friedman

By Daniel P. Friedman

This textbook deals a deep realizing of the fundamental options of programming languages. The strategy is analytic and hands-on. The textual content makes use of interpreters, written in Scheme, to precise the semantics of many crucial language parts in a fashion that's either transparent and without delay executable. It additionally examines a few very important application analyses. huge routines discover many layout and implementation choices.

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Succ, and pred. , succ, or pred. We can specify the intended behavior of these procedures as follows: This specification does not dictate how these nonnegative integers are to be represented. It requires only that these procedures conspire to produce the specified behavior. Thus, zero must be bound to the representation of 0. The procedure succ, given the representation of the integer n, must return the representation of the integer n + 1, and so on. The specification says nothing about (pred zero), so under this specification any behavior would be acceptable.

Lambda (lst) (if (null? ))) Throughout this book, bars in the left margin indicate lines that have changed since an earlier version of the same definition. If the input is not empty, then by the grammar for , it must be of the form that is, a list whose car is a Scheme datum and whose cdr is a list. Comparing this to the grammar for , we see that such a datum can be an element of if and only if its car is a number and its cdr is a list-ofnumbers. To find out if the cdr is a list-of-numbers, we call list-ofnumbers?

The procedures occurs-free? and occurs-bound? are not as readable as they might be. It is hard to tell, for example, that (caadr exp) refers to the declaration of a variable in a lambda expression, or that (caddr exp) refers to its body. 2. 19 [ ] Write a procedure free-vars that takes a list structure representing an expression in the lambda calculus syntax given above and returns a set (a list without duplicates) of all the variables that occur free in the expression. Similarly, write a procedure bound-vars that returns a set of all the variables that occur bound in its argument.

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