Reactor water chemistry relevant to coolant-cladding by International Atomic Energy Agency

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005 4 b/ < 0 . 1 10 b/ < 0 . 6 x 10~6 9 ° DF The efficiency of the coolant clean-up plants consisting only of Powdex-fliters is usually higher than that with Monobed. The life of the Powdez-fliters is normally about a month. 25g per 1m treated water. 15. 15 Unit Indicator Inlet CCU Removal efficiency: inlet concentr. outlet concentr. 3 x 10-10 85 « DF The efficiency of turbine condensate clean-up is usually higher in the plants with Powdex-filters. However, a disadvantage is the short life in cases when large amounts of salt enter the condensate as the result of leakage in the turbine condenser.

It still appears that more work is to be done in fields such as the effect of microstructure, second phase and heat treatment, environmental chemistry variation, fast-neutron flux, nodular corrosion and surface effects. Quantifying the pore formation in the oxide layers in the presence of dissolved oxygen and fast flux as a function of temperature would be a contribution needed to understand more on corrosion and hydrogen pick-up under BWR environments. Though, at this stage, a lot of information is available on the zirconium alloy performance, it is yet felt that the post-irradiation evaluation data can be compiled and compared for a verification of the design codes.

1* KT 10 2 Flux (ivton t«c. > I Mev) Fig. 3 The corrosion rate of Zircaloy under oxygenated conditions as a function of fast flux Fretting corrosion, a type of accelerated attack caused by the relative movement of two surfaces in contact, occurs mainly at the spacer contacts. g. by careful spacer design, particularly with respect to construction and selection of materials, this type of attack can be prevented. Under normal operating conditions of LWRs, the external corrosion of Zircaloys is not considered to be life-limiting, which is evident from the fact that a large number of fuel rods have been brought to full design burnup without corrosion failures.

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